OLD HACKERS, NEW HACKERS: WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE? di Steve Mizrach
Apparently, to people enamored of the 'old school' of hackers,
like Steven Levy or Clifford Stoll, there is a big difference. Indeed, to
the 'old style' MIT/Stanford hackers, they resent the bestowal of their
honored title on 'those people' by the media... to many people, 'hacker'
is reserved for a class of people in the 60s, a certain 'breed' of
programmer who launched the 'computer revolution,' but just can't seem to
be found around any more... according to these 'old school' hackers,
hacking meant a willingness to make technology accessible and open, a
certain 'love affair' with the computer which meant "they would rather
code than sleep." It meant a desire to create beauty with computers, to
liberate information, to decentralize access to communication...
But what about the 'new' hackers? Many of the 'old' hackers think
they don't deserve the name, preferring to call them 'computer
criminals,' 'vandals,' 'crackers,' 'miscreants,' or in a purely
generational swipe, 'juvenile delinquents.' The media uses the word
'hacker' to refer to young, clever computer users who use their modems to
break into systems without authorization, much as depicted in the movie
War Games. And the old school hackers resent this. Many of
the new hackers aren't good programmers; they are just people without
ethics who have no reservations about swiping passwords, codes, software,
and other information and trading them with their friends. They may be
good at exploiting security holes in systems, but all they succeed in
doing (say people like Stoll) is destroying the trust on which open
networks are built.
I am interested, needless to say, in the generational aspect to
this battle over the name 'hacker'. Most of the old hackers of the 60s
are of course now living in the 90s - Baby Boomers who, like their
ex-hippie friends, went from 'freak' to 'straight,' finding jobs in
computer security firms and corporate software conglomerates. And like
other counterculturalists from the 60s, they just can't seem to figure
out this Generation X forming the counterculture of the 90s... where's
the openness? The idealism? These "juvenile delinquents" just don't live
up to the high moral standards of the 60s nostalgiacs like Levy and
Stoll. But then, Levy rants about those great hackers who founded Apple
Computer and launched the PC revolution - those same ex-phreaks, Jobs and
Wozniak, who actually allowed their company to patent their system
hardware and software!
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The "cyberpunks" of the 90s, it seems, just don't live up to
what people like Stoll and Levy expect of them. And all the old 'hackers'
go to great pains to define themselves apart from the new breed of
'hackers,' always groaning in angst when the label continues to be
applied to them. I would argue that the hackers of the 90s are not so
different from the hackers of the 60s, that indeed, the same exploratory,
antiauthoritarian, liberatory impulses are at work; it is simply that the
hackers of the 60s do not understand the situation in which we live, and
this is probably because they read 60s hippie lit rather than 90s
cyberpunk SF... the 'old hackers' are simply too comfortable to be
afflicted... they don't understand why the new 'hacker' does what he does.
According to Levy, the differences between the old and new
hackers are stark and clear. The first group strove to create, the second
strives to destroy and tamper, he says. The first group loved control
over their computers, but the second group loves the power computers
gives them over people. The first group was always seeking to improve and
simplify; the second group only exploits and manipulates. The first group
did what they did because of a feeling of truth and beauty in their
activities; the second group hacks for profit and status. The first group
was communal and closely knit, always sharing openly their new hacks and
discoveries; the second, he says, is paranoid, isolated, and secretive.
For Levy, the old hackers were computer wizards, but the new hackers are
computer terrorists, always searching for new forms of electronic
vandalism or maliciousness without thought of the consequences.
But where Levy sees differences, I see some curious similarities.
Old-style MIT 'hackers' were rather well-known for getting around locks
of both the physical and electronic variety. Is there such a difference
between the righteous anger of the MIT hacker toward the IBM 'priesthood'
who kept him away from the massive mainframe, and the 90s hacker who
feels righteous anger over being prevented access from huge commercial
databases without an expensive account? The old MIT hackers were also
known for their exploration of the phone system, and exploring 'hacks' to
make calls to unsuspecting places for free. Indeed, many of the early
hackers were phone phreaks, plain and simple, ripping off service from
the phone company (THE company, AT & T, alias Ma Bell, back then), which
they resented for its refusal to share the technical information about
The 60s hackers were known for their desire for liberating
information. They openly shared source code; members of the Homebrew
Computer Club also openly shared with each other the flaws of various
machines, and 'hacks' to get around their lack of performance. Since Levy
seems to think that software piracy should not be a crime (since he
thinks source code should not be copyrighted), his problem with the 'new
hackers' does not appear to be piracy. Neither does it appear to be the
open sharing of some admittedly dangerous 'real-world' information taken
straight from books like the Anarchist Cookbook on how to
make bombs and drugs. Rather, it seems to focus around the malicious
misdeeds of a small minority, dedicated to spreading Trojan horses, logic
bombs, viruses, worms, and other destructive programs...
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In actuality, the majority of viruses (such as the Christmas
virus) are harmless. They eat up small fractions of CPU space and are
designed, rather than to wipe clean someone's hard drive, to just display
a message at a given time. They are, in short, pranks - something that
Levy also points out the old MIT hackers were overfond of. They were
known for playing complex tricks on people, and were masters of "social
engineering" - the art of manipulating technocrats by being a good
bullshit artist - just as the 90s hackers are... their elaborate games
and pranks often being ways to demonstrate their superiority to the
faculty, administrators, or other "know-it-alls" who they felt got in
their way of their access to computers...
In "invading" corporate voicemail systems, the modern 90s
hackers are no different than the 60s MIT hackers mapping out the
labyrinths of the MIT underground tunnel system. They do it for the same
reasons: because they are told not to, because the conduits often lead to
surprising places, because the activity is basically harmless even though
it is declared unauthorized or even illegal, and because it gives them a
feeling of mastery and control over a complex problem. The simple fact
is, most of the 90s hackers are not wantonly malicious or destructive.
Indeed, many subscribe to an updated 90s Hacker Ethic, declaring that
they will not "hack" personal privacy or the personal computer user,
instead declaring that their "targets" will be large, unresponsive
corporations or bureaucratic government organizations...
But the main reason for the difference between the 60s and 90s
hackers is that the GenXers are a "post-punk" generation, hence the term,
"cyberpunk." Their music has a little more edge and anger and a little
less idealism. They've seen the death of rock n'roll, and watched Michael
Bolton and Whitney Houston try and revive its corpse. Their world is a
little more multicultural and complicated, and less black-and-white. And
it is one in which, while computers can be used to create beauty, they
are also being used to destroy freedom and autonomy... hence control over
computers is an act of self-defense, not just power-hunger. Hacking, for
some of the new 'hackers,' is more than just a game, or a means to get
goodies without paying for them. As with the older generation, it has
become a way of life, a means of defining themselves as a subculture...
Many of them are quite deliberately 'nonviolent' in their
ambitions. They will not lock others out from their accounts, damage or
change data without permission, or do anything to jeopardize system
viability. Instead, they enter computer systems to 1) look around and see
what's there (if someone breaks into your house, looks at the posters on
your wall, then locks the door on the way out, have they committed a
crime?) 2) see where else they can go from where they are (what
connections can be pursued?) and 3) take advantage of any unique
abilities of the machine that they've accessed. MIT's hackers did all of
these things and more with the various mainframes they were 'forbidden'
to access and explore... they questioned the right of technocrats to
limit access, and openly transgressed their arbitrary limitations based
on invoked mantras of the preciousness of computer time.
Indeed, the 90s hackers pay a lot of homage to the first
generation. They have borrowed much of their jargon and certainly many of
their ideas. Their modus operandi , the PC, would not be available to
them were it not for the way the 60s hackers challenged the IBM/corporate
computer model and made personal computing a reality... their style,
their use of handles, their love for late-night junk food, are
all testaments to the durability and transmission of 60s Hacker culture.
So why are the biographers of the 60s hackers so antagonistic and hostile
to the new 90s hackers? Do they sense some sort of betrayal of the
original Hacker Ethic and its imperatives? Is it just the classic refusal
to pass a torch onto a new generation?
Breaking into the root node of a UNIX network or the system
manager account of a VAX network takes nimble thinking and clever
programming. It often takes a knowledge of various loopholes in the
system, and clever tricks that can be done with its coding. It often
requires unorthodox uses of standard applications. In short, it requires
hacking in the oldest and best senses of the term. In doing it, many 90s
hackers seek to expand their knowledge of the system and its
capabilities, not to sabotage the efforts of others or wreck the system.
Phreaks, in 'hacking' the phone system, are simply acting in the
centuries-old tradition of American radicals who have always challenged
the ways in which corporate and governmental structures prevent people
from free association with their peers... challenging the notion that "to
reach out and touch someone" should be a costly privilege rather than a
Someday, the old and new 'hackers' may sit down, and discuss
their commonalities rather than their differences. They may realize that
they share an alienation from the existing system. They might find out
that they have motivations and principles in common. Most importantly,
they might stop competing with each other for a mantle or title. The old
hackers might see the ways in which their countercultural visions failed
to take account of new realities, and they might provide a sense of
communal vision and purpose for the often backstabbing and
self-aggrandizing new hackers. If they were to actually team up, it might
be mean what Bruce Sterling calls "the End of the Amateurs." And the
beginning of "Computer Lib?"
Steve Mizrach (aka Seeker1)
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